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Secrets of the stealth ship  

A stealth ship - one invisible to enemy radar - may sound like the stuff of a James Bond film, but the maritime equivalent of the US air force B2 bomber is undergoing weapons installation at a naval shipyard in the south of Sweden.
According to the Swedish navy, the first of the Visby Class corvettes, which is currently sitting in the naval dockyard in Karlskrona, is a completely new type of warship: a frigate that is lighter and faster than a conventional ship and almost invisible to enemy detection. It is the largest vessel ever built from carbon fibre - a super-hard, lightweight plastic - which also marks a breakthrough in shipbuilding materials. The last time this happened - you could argue - was when Isambard Kingdom Brunel switched from wood to steel with the SS Great Britain in 1843.

Sounding more like an Ikea sofa than a warship of the future, the Visby is being primed to patrol Sweden's territorial waters and participate in joint operations within the EU and UN task forces. The ship, the first of five on order for the Royal Swedish Navy, will have a crew of 43 (including 16 conscripts) and will go into operation in January next year.

The Visby weighs approximately 600 tonnes, about half as much as a conventional corvette, and features a hangar for an Agusta-Westland helicopter, which can land on the upper deck and be retracted into the hull. The Visby's 57mm cannon also retracts so as to not to spoil the ship's radar signature. The Visby is designed for anti-submarine warfare and can sneak up on the enemy and plant anti-submarine mines without being seen.

The Royal Swedish Navy began searching for a material for a stealth ship in the immediate aftermath of the cold war.

"All of our exercises and training during the cold war period was a matter of stopping an enemy from the other side of the Baltic," says Lieutenant Commander Ulf Öberg of the Swedish navy. "All the Baltic states are now in the European Union and the Russian navy is not so much of a threat anymore. We no longer need the big ships."

The Swedes decided to switch from steel to plastic - two layers of carbon fibre filled with a PVC-like foam - in the search for a radar resistant material. By using a composite material, they found one that could dramatically reduce a ship's signature, making it not only less detectable by radar, but also less prone to enemy mines and other forms of electronic detection such as infrared. And if it is detected, the Visby should be quick enough to escape as it is only half as light as a conventional corvette.

Moreover, in searching for a radar-resistant material, the Swedes seem to have stumbled across a technology that could offer improved strength and rigidity, lower weight and better shock and flame resistance than steel. Kockums, the ship's builder, says ships made from carbon fibre enjoy lower running and maintenance costs and lower fuel consumption.

According to Kockums, the Visby costs roughly one and a half times more to build than a conventional corvette. But the shipbuilder argues that the Visby is a far more cost-efficient vessel over the long run
"Carbon fibre is not a cheap material - that's the trouble," admits Kjell Göthe, head of information at Kockums. "But if you look at the ship over the course of 30 years and you look at all the costs it is cheaper than a steel ship. The maintenance is nothing to talk about."

Carbon fibre is one of the toughest known materials - and that is why it is so expensive. It is so tough that Kockums had to develop the cutting technology to build the Visby. "We had diamonds in the beginning but they were destroyed after a very short time," says Göthe. "What we use now is an extremely high pressure water jet. I think it is a bit incredible but a water jet is better."

The Visby's stealth properties are not its only hi-tech component. The ship includes a command and control centre that uses a Windows NT operating system. The Swedes insist that this will not make the vessel vulnerable to hacker attacks, although the navy will not be drawn on the potential for the system - armed with hi-tech cannon and missiles - to crash. While the point-and-click system is popular with conscripts, the ship was fitted with a wooden ship's wheel at the insistence of senior officers. If Windows goes down, they will still be able to steer.

Racing yachts and patrol boats have been manufactured from composite materials before, but the Visby is the largest ship to be made from carbon fibre. It could be a little early to talk about new trends in shipbuilding as the Visby has only recently finished undergoing sea trials and won't be fully operational until January, but US shipbuilders including Lockheed Martin, General Dynamics Corp and Raytheon are also designing similar stealth ships for the Pentagon. The next generation of US destroyers, the DDX, is also reported to be built using composite materials and the Royal Navy is believed to be looking at carbon fibre as a potential shipbuilding material. If the Visby really does turn out to be more cost-efficient than a steel ship, some maritime analysts believe that it could be a matter of time before merchant vessels begin to be made from tough plastics.

"The use of composite materials is very exciting," says Stephen Saunders, editor of Jane's Fighting Ships. "There is no reason why ships should not be made of carbon fibre as long as they are up to the job. The fact that the Americans are using it in the superstructure in their next destroyers certainly points in that direction."

For now, the Visby is the lightest and fastest in its class. But is it the only one? Ominously, the Guinness Book of Records museum in Florida says there could be another, much larger stealth ship already out there. They just don't know how to find it.

posted by Capa  # 10:52



Agar gorengan kita tidak lengket/melekat di penggorengan. Ada baiknya
dipanaskan dulu penggorengan itu sebelum memasukan minyak goreng. Dan tunggu
sampai minyak dipenggorengan itu panas barulah mulai menggoreng.


Agar lebih enak rasa daging atau sop yang kita buat. Lebih baik tunggulah
sampai air mendidih dulu, dan bergolak selama kurang lebih 1 menit.
barulah masukan daging yang akan kita rebus.
Karena merebus daging dengan memasukan daging itu kedalam air yang masih
dingin, maka segala cairan dari daging itu akan menyebar keseluruh air yang
dingin itu. dan bisa mengurangi rasa enak bahkan menimbulkan rasa amis pada
masakan itu.
Sedangkan bila memasukan daging kedalam air mendidih, maka belum sempat cairan
dari daging itu menyebar, sudah terlebih dahulu dimatangkan oleh air mendidih


Untuk menjaga vitamin dari sayur sayuran itu tidak terbuang percuma, sebaiknya
janganlah direbus. Akan lebih baik di kukus.


Sering kali kita menggoreng ikan, saat bagian atas habis dan saat kita
membalik bagian bawahnya, terlihat basah dan kurang sedap dipandang.
Ada baiknya kita meletakan sesuatu di atas piring yang bisa membuang udara
panas dan tembus tetesan minyak pada ikan yang telah kita goreng itu. Agar
bagian lainnya dari ikan itu tetap sama dengan bagian lainnya dan enak
dilihat dan dirasakan, juga akan memelihara ke garingan dari ikan itu. Hal
semacam juga bisa digunakan pada gorengan bertepung. Alat lapisan yang mirip
jaring (tirisan) itu bisa di dapatkan di pasar pasar traditional maupun super
market besar.


Bila ingin mengetahui sudah matang atau belumnya daging ayam atau daging
lainnya bila kita rebus atao bakar. Adalah dengan cara dengan menggunakan
tusukan sate atau tusuk gigi bisa juga dgn lain nya yang serupa.
Yaitu dengan cara tusukan alat itu pada daging yang sdg kita rebus atau bakar,
bila yang keluar cairan masih berwarna kemerahan, berarti daging itu belum
matang sempurna. Bisa dikatakan sempurna apabila cairan yang keluar itu
berwarna putih.


Bila kita menjamu tamu yang datang berkunjung, janganlah berlama lama sayuran
itu di penggorengan, karena akan terlalu layu dan mengurangu rasa asli dari
sayuran itu. Juga kurang bagus dilihat bentuk sayur itu.
Agar terlihat dan terasa asli sayuran yang kita tumis itu, lebih baik sayuran
itu hanya 3/4 matang di penggorengan. Sewaktu membawa kemeja tamu tutuplah
dengan rapat, maka ketika di buka sayuran itu akan matang dengan sendirinya
selama waktu dari dapur anda ke meja ruang makan anda.


Janganlah memasukan semua belanjaan anda dalam satu kantung utuh kedalam
lemari es. Bila anda membeli daging satu kilo, padahal anda tidak akan
memasaknya dalam satu kali. Sehingga anda harus mengeluarkan dan memasukan
lagi daging itu ke dalam lemari es setelah anda ambil seperlunya. Semua itu
dapat mengenmbang biakan kuman kuman dalam daging itu. Karena kuman kuman itu
tidak akan mati walaupun anda masukan kedalam ruang terdingin sekalipun. Dan
kuman kuman itu akan berlipat ganda setiap kali anda keluarkan dari lemari es

Ada baiknya anda bagikan daging daging itu sesuai dengan kebutuhan anda setiap
memasaknya, dan masukan kedalam kantung plastik daging sebanyak yang anda
perlukan saja. Jadi anda akan mengeluarkan daging sesuai dgn keperluan anda.
Hal ini berlaku juga dengan sayuran dan lainnya.

Makan sisa yang sudah matang, sebaiknya ditutup rapat bila dimasukan kedalam
lemari es, hal ini akan melindungi kuman kuman dari makanan lain yang masih
mentah masuk kedalam makanan matang itu.

posted by Capa  # 10:46

tau ahhhhhhhhh  

Built-in 8 MB memory stores thousands of contacts, appointments, to-do items, and notes
New, advanced monochrome LCD screen makes it easier to see in dim light and in bright sunlight
New Secure Digital Card/MultiMediaCard expansion slot for additional memory and functionality such as a dictionary/thesaurus, games, and more
Native USB cradle allows faster HotSync operations
Windows and Macintosh compatible--includes desktop software for both platforms
posted by Capa  # 10:13


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